# 2 Ways to Implement Multinomial Logistic Regression In Python

**Implementing Multinomial Logistic Regression in Python**

Logistic regression is one of the most popular supervised classification algorithm. This classification algorithm mostly used for solving binary classification problems. People follow the myth that logistic regression is only useful for the binary classification problems.

Which is not true. Logistic regression algorithm can also use to solve the multi-classification problems. So in this article, your are going to implement the logistic regression model in python for the multi-classification problem in 2 different ways.

In machine learning way of saying implementing **multinomial logistic regression model in python**.

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#### Table of contents:

- The difference between binary classification and multi-classification
- Binary classification problems and explanation
- Multi-classification problems and explanation

- Introduction to Multinomial Logistic regression
- Glass Dataset description
- Multinomial Logistic regression implementation in Python
- Conclusion

**The difference between binary classification and multi-classification**

The name itself signifies the key differences between binary and multi-classification. Below examples will give you the clear understanding about these two kinds of classification. Let’s first look at the **binary classification** problem example. Later we will look at the **multi-classification** problems.

**Binary Classification:**

- Given the subject and the email text predicting, Email Spam or not.
- Sunny or rainy day prediction, using the weather information.
- Based on the bank customer history, Predicting whether to give the loan or not.

**Multi-Classification:**

- Given the dimensional information of the object, Identifying the shape of the object.
- Identifying the different kinds of vehicles.
- Based on the color intensities, Predicting the color type.

I hope the above examples given you the clear understanding about these two kinds of classification problems. In case you miss that, Below is the explanation about the two kinds of classification problems in detail.

**Binary Classification Explanation:**

In the binary classification task. The idea is to use the training data set and come up with any classification algorithm. In the later phase use the trained classifier to predict the target for the given features. The possible outcome for the target is one of the **two different** target classes.

If you see the above binary classification problem examples, In all the examples the predicting target is having **only 2** possible outcomes. For email spam or not prediction, the possible 2 outcome for the target is email is spam or not spam.

On a final note, binary classification is the task of predicting the target class from two possible outcomes.

**Multi-classification Explanation:**

In the multi-classification problem, the idea is to use the training dataset to come up with any classification algorithm. Later use the trained classifier to predict the target out of **more than 2** possible outcomes.

If you see the above multi-classification problem examples. In all the examples the predicting target is having **more than 2** possible outcomes. For identifying the objects, the target object could be triangle, rectangle, square or any other shape. Likewise other examples too.

On a final note, multi-classification is the task of predicting the target class from more two possible outcomes.

I hope you are having the clear idea about the binary and multi-classification. Now let’s move on the Multinomial logistic regression.

**Introduction to Multinomial Logistic regression**

Multinomial logistic regression is the generalization of logistic regression algorithm. If the logistic regression algorithm used for the multi-classification task, then the same logistic regression algorithm called as the **multinomial logistic regression**.

The difference in the normal logistic regression algorithm and the multinomial logistic regression in not only about using for different tasks like binary classification or multi-classification task. In much deeper It’s all about using the **different functions.**

In the logistic regression, the black function which takes the input features and calculates the probabilities of the possible two outcomes is the **Sigmoid Function**. Later the high probabilities target class is the final predicted class from the logistic regression classifier.

When it comes to the multinomial logistic regression the function is the **Softmax Function**. I am not going to much details about the properties of sigmoid and softmax functions and how the multinomial logistic regression algorithms work. As we are already discussed these topics in details in our earlier articles.

Before you drive further I recommend you, spend some time on understanding the below concepts.

I hope you clear with the above-mentioned concepts. Now let’s start the most interesting part. Building the multinomial logistic regression model.

You are going to build the multinomial logistic regression in **2 different ways**.

- Using the same python scikit-learn binary logistic regression classifier.
- Tuning the python scikit-learn logistic regression classifier to model for the multinomial logistic regression model.

### Glass Identification Dataset Description

The classification model we are going build using the multinomial logistic regression algorithm is **glass Identification**. The Identification task is so interesting as using different glass mixture features we are going to create a classification model to predict what kind of glass it could be.

We will look into, what are those glass types in the coming paragraph. Before that let’s quickly look into the key observation about the glass identification dataset.

Title |
Glass Identification Dataset |

Dataset Associated Task |
Classification |

Number of Observations |
214 |

Number of features |
10 |

Missing Values |
No |

Target |
Glass Type |

#### Features and Target Information

From the above table, you know that we are having 10 features and 1 target for the glass identification dataset, Let’s look into the details about the features and target.

#### Features:

- Id number: 1 to 214
- RI: refractive index
- Na: Sodium (unit measurement: weight percent in the corresponding oxide, as attributes 4-10)
- Mg: Magnesium
- Al: Aluminum
- Si: Silicon
- K: Potassium
- Ca: Calcium
- Ba: Barium
- Fe: Iron

#### Target: Type of glass

The glass identification dataset having 7 different glass types for the target. These different glass types differ from the usage.

- building_windows_float_processed
- building_windows_non_float_processed
- vehicle_windows_float_processed
- vehicle_windows_non_float_processed (none in this database)
- containers
- tableware
- headlamps

**Multinomial Logistic regression implementation in Python**

Below is the workflow to build the multinomial logistic regression.

- Required python packages
- Load the input dataset
- Visualizing the dataset
- Split the dataset into training and test dataset
- Building the logistic regression for multi-classification
- Implementing the multinomial logistic regression
- Comparing the accuracies

Let’s begin with importing the required python packages.

#### Required Python Packages

Below are the general python machine learning libraries. If you haven’t setup python machine learning libraries setup. Python machine learning setup will help in installing most of the python machine learning libraries.

# Required Python Packages import pandas as pd import numpy as np from sklearn import linear_model from sklearn import metrics from sklearn.cross_validation import train_test_split import plotly.graph_objs as go import plotly.plotly as py from plotly.graph_objs import * py.sign_in('Your_ployly_username', 'API_key')

**Pandas:**Pandas is for data analysis, In our case the tabular data analysis.**Numpy:**Numpy for performing the numerical calculation.**Sklearn:**Sklearn is the python machine learning algorithm toolkit.**linear_model:**Is for modeling the logistic regression model**metrics:**Is for calculating the accuracies of the trained logistic regression model.**train_test_split:**As the name suggest, it’s used for splitting the dataset into training and test dataset.

**Plotly:**Plotly is for visualizing the data.

Now let’s load the dataset into the pandas dataframe.

#### Dataset Path

You can download the dataset from UCI Machine learning Repository or you can clone the complete code for dataaspirant GitHub account.

# Dataset Path DATASET_PATH = "../Inputs/glass.txt"

#### Loading dataset

def main(): # Glass dataset headers glass_data_headers = ["Id", "RI", "Na", "Mg", "Al", "Si", "K", "Ca", "Ba", "Fe", "glass-type"] # Loading the Glass dataset in to Pandas dataframe glass_data = pd.read_csv(DATASET_PATH, names=glass_data_headers) print "Number of observations :: ", len(glass_data.index) print "Number of columns :: ", len(glass_data.columns) print "Headers :: ", glass_data.columns.values if __name__ == "__main__": main()

- The downloaded dataset is not having the header, So we created the
**glass_data_headres**. - We are loading the dataset into pandas dataframe by passing the
**dataset location**and the**headers.** - Next printing the loaded dataframe observations, columns and the
**headers name**.

#### Script Output

Number of observations :: 214 Number of columns :: 11 Headers :: ['Id' 'RI' 'Na' 'Mg' 'Al' 'Si' 'K' 'Ca' 'Ba' 'Fe' 'glass-type']

Before we implement the multinomial logistic regression in 2 different ways. Let’s understand about the dataset.

To understand the behavior of each feature with the target (Glass type). We are going to create a **density graph**. The density graph will visualize to show the relationship between single feature with all the targets types.

Not getting what I am talking about the density graph. Just wait for a moment in the next section we are going to visualize the density graph for example. Then you will get to know, What I mean by the density graph.

Now let’s create a function to create the density graph and stores in our local systems.

def scatter_with_color_dimension_graph(feature, target, layout_labels): """ Scatter with color dimension graph to visualize the density of the Given feature with target :param feature: :param target: :param layout_labels: :return: """ trace1 = go.Scatter( y=feature, mode='markers', marker=dict( size='16', color=target, colorscale='Viridis', showscale=True ) ) layout = go.Layout( title=layout_labels[2], xaxis=dict(title=layout_labels[0]), yaxis=dict(title=layout_labels[1])) data = [trace1] fig = Figure(data=data, layout=layout) # plot_url = py.plot(fig) py.image.save_as(fig, filename=layout_labels[1] + '_Density.png')

- The function
**scatter_with_color_dimension_graph**takes the feature, target, and the laytout_labels as inputs and creates the density graph I am talking about. - Later saves the created density graph in our local system.
- The above code is just the template of the plotly graphs, All we need to know is the replacing the template inputs with our input parameters.

Now let’s call the above function with the dummy feature and target.

def main(): glass_data = pd.read_csv(DATASET_PATH, names=glass_data_headers) print "glass_data_RI :: ", list(glass_data["RI"][:10]) print "glass_data_target :: ", np.array([1, 1, 1, 2, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7]) if __name__ == "__main__": main()

#### Script Output:

glass_data_RI :: [1.52101, 1.5176100000000001, 1.5161799999999999, 1.51766, 1.51742, 1.51596, 1.5174299999999998, 1.51756, 1.51918, 1.51755] glass_data_target :: [1 1 1 2 2 3 4 5 6 7]

The above are the dummy feature and the target.

**glass_data_RI:**Is the feature and the values of this feature are the refractive index. These are the first 10 values from the glass identification dataset.**glass_data_target:**Is the target and the values are the different glass types. In fact, I covered all the glass types (7 types.)

Now let’s use the above dummy data for visualization

def main(): glass_data = pd.read_csv(DATASET_PATH, names=glass_data_headers) print "glass_data_RI :: ", list(glass_data["RI"][:10]) print "glass_data_target :: ", np.array([1, 1, 1, 2, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7]) # Graph Labels graph_labels = ["Number of Observations", "RI & Glass Type", "Sample RI - Glass Type Density Graph"] scatter_with_color_dimension_graph(list(glass_data["RI"][:10]), np.array([1, 1, 1, 2, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7]), graph_labels) if __name__ == "__main__": main()

Calling the **scatter_with_color_dimension_graph** with dummy feature and the target. Below is the density graph for dummy feature and the target.

- The above graph helps to visualize the relationship between the feature and the target (7 glass types)
- The Yellow circle is for glass type 7.
- The
**right sidebar**will help to know the circle type (target glass type) by its color and the**left side**values are the corresponding feature values. - If we plot more number of observations we can visualize for what values of the features the target will be the glass type 7, likewise for all another target(glass type)

Now let’s create a function which creates the density graph and the saves the above kind of graphs for all the features.

def create_density_graph(dataset, features_header, target_header): """ Create density graph for each feature with target :param dataset: :param features_header: :param target_header: :return: """ for feature_header in features_header: print "Creating density graph for feature:: {} ".format(feature_header) layout_headers = ["Number of Observation", feature_header + " & " + target_header, feature_header + " & " + target_header + " Density Graph"] scatter_with_color_dimension_graph(dataset[feature_header], dataset[target_header], layout_headers)

- The function
**create_density_graph**takes the dataset, features_header and target_headers as input parameters. - Inside the function, we are considering each feature_header in the features_header and calling the function scatter_with_clolor_dimenstion_graph.

Now let’s call the above function inside the main function.

def main(): glass_data = pd.read_csv(DATASET_PATH, names=glass_data_headers) glass_data_headers = ["Id", "RI", "Na", "Mg", "Al", "Si", "K", "Ca", "Ba", "Fe", "glass-type"] create_density_graph(glass_data, glass_data_headers[1:-1], glass_data_headers[-1]) if __name__ == "__main__": main()

The above code saves the below graphs, Each graph gives the relationship between the feature and the target.

#### Density graph of Ri and glass type

#### Density graph of Na and glass type

#### Density graph of Mg and glass type

#### Density graph of Al and glass type

#### Density graph of Si and glass type

#### Density graph of K and glass type

#### Density graph of Ca and glass type

#### Density graph of Ba and glass type

#### Density graph of Fe and glass type

Please spend some time on understanding each graph to know which features and the target having the good relationship. So we can use those features to build the multinomial logistic regression model.

To build the multinomial logistic regression I am using all the features in the Glass identification dataset. You use the most suitable features you think from the above graphs and use only those features to model the multinomial logistic regression.

Training the multinomial logistic regression model requires the features and the corresponding targets. For this, we are going to split the dataset into four datasets. Which are

*train_x**test_x**train_y**test_y*

We are going to use the ** train_x** and

**for modeling the multinomial logistic regression model and use the**

*train_y**and*

**test_x****for calculating the accuracy of our trained multinomial logistic regression model.**

*test_y*Now let’s split the loaded glass dataset into four different datasets.

### Split the dataset into training and test dataset

def main(): glass_data_headers = ["Id", "RI", "Na", "Mg", "Al", "Si", "K", "Ca", "Ba", "Fe", "glass-type"] glass_data = pd.read_csv(DATASET_PATH, names=glass_data_headers) train_x, test_x, train_y, test_y = train_test_split(glass_data[glass_data_headers[:-1]], glass_data[glass_data_headers[-1]], train_size=0.7) if __name__ == "__main__": main()

- We are using the scikit-learn
**train_test_split**method to split the glass dataset. - As we are passing
**0.7**as the train_size value, The train_test_split method will split the glass dataset randomly**70%**for training and remaining**30%**for testing.

### Building the logistic regression for multi-classification

In the first approach, we are going use the scikit learn logistic regression classifier to build the multi-classification classifier.

def main(): glass_data_headers = ["Id", "RI", "Na", "Mg", "Al", "Si", "K", "Ca", "Ba", "Fe", "glass-type"] glass_data = pd.read_csv(DATASET_PATH, names=glass_data_headers) train_x, test_x, train_y, test_y = train_test_split(glass_data[glass_data_headers[:-1]], glass_data[glass_data_headers[-1]], train_size=0.7) # Train multi-class logistic regression model lr = linear_model.LogisticRegression() lr.fit(train_x, train_y) if __name__ == "__main__": main()

- Using the function LogisticRegression in scikit learn linear_model method to create the logistic regression model instance.
- Next using the fit method with the
and*train_x*to fit the logistic regression model for the glass identification training dataset.*train_y*

### Implementing the multinomial logistic regression

In the second approach, we are going pass the **multinomial** parameter before we fit the model with *train_x, test_x*

def main(): glass_data_headers = ["Id", "RI", "Na", "Mg", "Al", "Si", "K", "Ca", "Ba", "Fe", "glass-type"] glass_data = pd.read_csv(DATASET_PATH, names=glass_data_headers) train_x, test_x, train_y, test_y = train_test_split(glass_data[glass_data_headers[:-1]], glass_data[glass_data_headers[-1]], train_size=0.7) # Train multinomial logistic regression mul_lr = linear_model.LogisticRegression(multi_class='multinomial', solver='newton-cg').fit(train_x, train_y) if __name__ == "__main__": main()

### Comparing the accuracies

No compare the train and test accuracies of both the models.

def main(): glass_data_headers = ["Id", "RI", "Na", "Mg", "Al", "Si", "K", "Ca", "Ba", "Fe", "glass-type"] glass_data = pd.read_csv(DATASET_PATH, names=glass_data_headers) train_x, test_x, train_y, test_y = train_test_split(glass_data[glass_data_headers[:-1]], glass_data[glass_data_headers[-1]], train_size=0.7) # Train multi-classification model with logistic regression lr = linear_model.LogisticRegression() lr.fit(train_x, train_y) # Train multinomial logistic regression model mul_lr = linear_model.LogisticRegression(multi_class='multinomial', solver='newton-cg').fit(train_x, train_y) print "Logistic regression Train Accuracy :: ", metrics.accuracy_score(train_y, lr.predict(train_x)) print "Logistic regression Test Accuracy :: ", metrics.accuracy_score(test_y, lr.predict(test_x)) print "Multinomial Logistic regression Train Accuracy :: ", metrics.accuracy_score(train_y, mul_lr.predict(train_x)) print "Multinomial Logistic regression Test Accuracy :: ", metrics.accuracy_score(test_y, mul_lr.predict(test_x)) if __name__ == "__main__": main()

- To calculate the accuracy of the trained multinomial logistic regression models we are using the scikit learn
method.*metrics* - We are calling the
method*metrics*function with actual targets and the predicted targets.**accuracy_score**

#### Multinomial logistic regression model Accuracy

Logistic regression Train Accuracy :: 0.885906040268 Logistic regression Test Accuracy :: 0.830769230769 Multinomial Logistic regression Train Accuracy :: 1.0 Multinomial Logistic regression Test Accuracy :: 1.0

From the result, we can say that using the direct scikit-learn logistic regression is getting **less accuracy **than the multinomial logistic regression model. Now you use the code and play around with.

### Multinomial logistic regression Complete Code

#!/usr/bin/env python # multinomial_logistic_regression.py # Author : Saimadhu Polamuri # Date: 05-May-2017 # About: Multinomial logistic regression model implementation import pandas as pd import numpy as np from sklearn import linear_model from sklearn import metrics from sklearn.cross_validation import train_test_split import plotly.graph_objs as go import plotly.plotly as py from plotly.graph_objs import * py.sign_in('Your_ployly_username', 'API_key') # Dataset Path DATASET_PATH = "../Inputs/glass.txt" def scatter_with_color_dimension_graph(feature, target, layout_labels): """ Scatter with color dimension graph to visualize the density of the Given feature with target :param feature: :param target: :param layout_labels: :return: """ trace1 = go.Scatter( y=feature, mode='markers', marker=dict( size='16', color=target, colorscale='Viridis', showscale=True ) ) layout = go.Layout( title=layout_labels[2], xaxis=dict(title=layout_labels[0]), yaxis=dict(title=layout_labels[1])) data = [trace1] fig = Figure(data=data, layout=layout) # plot_url = py.plot(fig) py.image.save_as(fig, filename=layout_labels[1] + '_Density.png') def create_density_graph(dataset, features_header, target_header): """ Create density graph for each feature with target :param dataset: :param features_header: :param target_header: :return: """ for feature_header in features_header: print "Creating density graph for feature:: {} ".format(feature_header) layout_headers = ["Number of Observation", feature_header + " & " + target_header, feature_header + " & " + target_header + " Density Graph"] scatter_with_color_dimension_graph(dataset[feature_header], dataset[target_header], layout_headers) def main(): glass_data_headers = ["Id", "RI", "Na", "Mg", "Al", "Si", "K", "Ca", "Ba", "Fe", "glass-type"] glass_data = pd.read_csv(DATASET_PATH, names=glass_data_headers) print "Number of observations :: ", len(glass_data.index) print "Number of columns :: ", len(glass_data.columns) print "Headers :: ", glass_data.columns.values print "Target :: ", glass_data[glass_data_headers[-1]] Train , Test data split print "glass_data_RI :: ", list(glass_data["RI"][:10]) print "glass_data_target :: ", np.array([1, 1, 1, 2, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7]) graph_labels = ["Number of Observations", "RI & Glass Type", "Sample RI - Glass Type Density Graph"] # scatter_with_color_dimension_graph(list(glass_data["RI"][:10]), # np.array([1, 1, 1, 2, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7]), graph_labels) # print "glass_data_headers[:-1] :: ", glass_data_headers[:-1] # print "glass_data_headers[-1] :: ", glass_data_headers[-1] # create_density_graph(glass_data, glass_data_headers[1:-1], glass_data_headers[-1]) train_x, test_x, train_y, test_y = train_test_split(glass_data[glass_data_headers[:-1]], glass_data[glass_data_headers[-1]], train_size=0.7) # Train multi-classification model with logistic regression lr = linear_model.LogisticRegression() lr.fit(train_x, train_y) # Train multinomial logistic regression model mul_lr = linear_model.LogisticRegression(multi_class='multinomial', solver='newton-cg').fit(train_x, train_y) print "Logistic regression Train Accuracy :: ", metrics.accuracy_score(train_y, lr.predict(train_x)) print "Logistic regression Test Accuracy :: ", metrics.accuracy_score(test_y, lr.predict(test_x)) print "Multinomial Logistic regression Train Accuracy :: ", metrics.accuracy_score(train_y, mul_lr.predict(train_x)) print "Multinomial Logistic regression Test Accuracy :: ", metrics.accuracy_score(test_y, mul_lr.predict(test_x)) if __name__ == "__main__": main()

You can fork the complete code at dataaspirant GitHub account

### Conclusion

In this article, you learn about

- The key differences between binary and multi-class classification.
- Introduced to the concept of multinomial logistic regression.
- Finally, you learned two different ways to multinomial logistic regression in python with Scikit-learn.

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I hope you like this post. If you have any questions, then feel free to comment below. If you want me to write on one particular topic, then do tell it to me in the comments below.

Thanks for the article, one thing, train_test_split is now in the sklearn.model_selection module instead of how it is imported in your code.

Hi Adan,

Thanks for correcting, in the sklearn updated version train_test_split method got changed.

Happy learning.

Hello . It was a great article . I have done it. But i wonder you used “Id” as a feature . When i removed the “Id” feature from my X_train, X_test then the accuracy for training set is 66% and for test set is 50%. I think “Id” is creating a bias here.

Hi Mitu,

Great. We can try out different features. It’s not a good practice to use the handpicked features in most of the case. The best practice is to perform the feature engineering to come up with the best features of the model and use those features in the model.